The Eiffel Tower is a 330 m2 high puddled iron tower (with antennas) located in Paris (France), at the north-west end of the Champ-de-Mars park on the banks of the Seine in the 7th arrondissement. Its official address is 5, avenue Anatole-France.
Built by Gustave Eiffel and his collaborators for the 1889 Paris Universal Exhibition, celebrating the centenary of the French Revolution, and initially named the “300-meter tower”, it became the symbol of the French capital and a landmark leading tourist destination: it is the fourth most visited paid French cultural site in 2023, with 5.9 million visitors. Since its opening to the public, it has welcomed more than 300 million visitors.
Originally 312 meters high, the Eiffel Tower remained the highest monument in the world for forty years. The second level of the third floor, sometimes called the fourth floor, located at 279.11 meters, is the highest publicly accessible observation deck in the European Union and the second highest in Europe, behind the Ostankino Tower in Moscow culminating at 337 meters.
The height of the tower has been increased several times by the installation of a flag and then numerous antennas, notably in 1991, 1994, 2000 and 2022. Used in the past for numerous scientific experiments, it now serves as a transmitter of radio and television programs.
The puddle iron (wrought iron) of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes, and the addition of lifts, shops and antennae have brought the total weight to approximately 10,100 tonnes. As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of metal in the structure were melted down, it would fill the square base, 125 metres on each side, to a depth of only 6.25 cm assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre. Additionally, a cubic box surrounding the tower (324 m × 125 m × 125 m) would contain 6,200 tonnes of air, weighing almost as much as the iron itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm due to thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.
The four columns of the tower each house access stairs and elevators to the first two floors, while at the south column only the elevator to the second floor restaurant is publicly accessible.
The first floor is publicly accessible by elevator or stairs. When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants – one French, one Russian and one Flemish — and an “Anglo-American Bar”. After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250-seat theatre. Today there is the Le 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant and other facilities.
The second floor is publicly accessible by elevator or stairs and has a restaurant called Le Jules Verne, a gourmet restaurant with its own lift going up from the south column to the second level. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. It was run by the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse from 2007 to 2017. As of May 2019, it is managed by three-star chef Frédéric Anton. It owes its name to the famous science-fiction writer Jules Verne.
The third floor is the top floor, publicly accessible by elevator.
Originally there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.
From 1937 until 1981, there was a restaurant near the top of the tower. It was removed due to structural considerations; engineers had determined it was too heavy and was causing the tower to sag. This restaurant was sold to an American restaurateur and transported to New York and then New Orleans. It was rebuilt on the edge of New Orleans’ Garden District as a restaurant and later event hall. Today there is a champagne bar.
Located in: Champ de Mars.
Address: Champ de Mars, 5 Av. Anatole France, 75007 Paris, France.
Wednesday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Thursday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Friday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Saturday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Sunday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Monday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Tuesday 9:30 AM–10:45 PM
Height: 300 m, 330 m to tip
Construction started: January 26, 1887
Opened: March 31, 1889
Architects: Stephen Sauvestre, Émile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin
Contractor: Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel
Date completed: March 31, 1889