Mokhovaya (1961-1990 – part of Marx Avenue) – a street in the center of Moscow. The street originates from Znamenka Street, goes to the north, connects to Vozdvizhenka Street, connects to Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street, goes to the left and ends at Tverskaya street. The continuation is Okhotny Ryad street. The numbering of houses is from Znamenka.
The street is about 600 m long and runs parallel to the western wall of the Kremlin.
Modern Mokhovaya is a wide and hectic street with many pedestrians and vehicles. Having preserved fragments of historical buildings (which, however, cannot be called complete), it has high-quality amenities: wide sidewalks are paved with granite tiles and “historical” lanterns made according to the drawings of lanterns of the 1930s are used for lighting. The architectural ensemble of the street includes some unique buildings from different eras: the Pashkov house, the Moscow Manege, the RSL building, the Shakhovsky-Krasilshchikov estate, the National Hotel, the old buildings of Moscow University and the Church of the Martyr Tatiana at Moscow State University, the Zholtovsky house and others.
Among other things, the beginning of the street is decorated with a monument to Prince Vladimir, which is installed on Borovitskaya Square and is one of the largest monuments in Russia.
The street was formed by the 15th century and, due to the proximity of the Kremlin, was initially quite respectable. The Moscow nobility settled here. Initially, around the modern Pashkov house, there was a country courtyard of the Grand Duchess Sophia Vitovtovna, and later the courtyards of the princes Cherkassky, Shuisky and Streshnev appeared. In 1565, when Tsar Ivan the Terrible established the oprichnina, along the modern Mokhovaya between Vozdvizhenka and Bolshaya Nikitskaya, the Oprichny yard – the royal residence – was built.
The middle of the 18th century wasa turning point in the history of the street when instead of the courts of the nobility, public buildings began to appear on it. In 1755, Moscow University was formed, for the placement of which, by decree of Catherine II, some properties on Mokhovaya were bought.
Nevertheless, despite the new trend, at the end of the 18th century, on a hill at the beginning of the street, according to the project, presumably by Vasily Bazhenov, the luxurious Pashkov House was erected – one of the most beautiful buildings in Moscow, which has become a symbol of Mokhovaya Street; in front of the house was a manor park with ponds. But already in the first half of the 19th century, it also assumed a public function: it housed a noble institute, then the Rumyantsev Museum and library.
In the 1930s, Mokhovaya was reconstructed and expanded (the garden in front of Pashkov’s house was destroyed) and part of it was demolished. In 1961 itcompletely disappeared from the city mapalong with Teatralny Proyezd, Okhotny Ryad and Moiseevskaya Square. It was also included in Marx Avenue. The newly formed avenue had a curved shape that skirted the Kremlin and Kitay-Gorod from Borovitskaya Square to Dzerzhinsky Square (modern Lubyanskaya Square).
In 1972, Mokhovaya again suffered serious losses thanks tothe arrival of American President Richard Nixon: a whole block of historical buildings of the 18 and 19th centuries was demolished, in the place of which a wasteland was formed, nicknamed Nixon’s lawn. However, the Soviet period brought new iconic objects to the street: for example, a huge building of the Lenin Library (now the Russian State Library) appeared on the corner with Vozdvizhenka, which has become one of the key sights of Moscow.
Nearest attractions: Arbat street, New Arbat Avenue, Church of Simeon Stolpnik on Povarskaya, Khudozhestvenny cinema, Arseny Morozov’s mansion, Shakhovsky – Krause – Osipovsky’s mansion, Shchusev State Museum of Architecture, Bolshoi Theatre, Maly Theatre, Manezhnaya Square, Ploschad Revolyutsii (square), State Duma building, House of the Unions, Teatralnaya Ploschad, TSUM, Red Square.