Kaluga Square (Kaluzhskaya Ploshchad) is a square on the Garden Ring in Moscow. It connects several streets: Bolshaya Yakimanka approaches it from the north, Leninsky Prospekt (former Bolshaya Kaluga Street) and Mytnaya Street from the south, Krymsky Val from the west, Zhitnaya Street and Koroviy Val from the east.
The ring and radial metro station “Oktyabrskaya” exits are located on the square.
Kaluga Square arose behind the Kaluga Gates of the Earthen City, erected in 1592-1593 along with the Earthen Wall. Initially, the gates were wooden, and since 1640 – they have been stone. They had to perform a military function only once during their entire existence – in 1618, during the assault on Moscow by the Polish troops of Prince Vladislav.
By the end of the 17th century, the square became a trading area. Trade rows appeared where hay, oats, bread, firewood, etc. sold. Since 1701, on the square – on the corner of Zhitnaya Street – there has been a “zhitny yard” where grain stocks were stored. In 1714, the cattle market was transferred from the Myasnitsky Gate to the Kaluga Gate, which lasted until 1783 and then moved again – behind Zemlyanoy Val, closer to the Serpukhov Gate. The Kaluga prison adjoins the trading rows – until 1785 when the Butyrka prison was built.
In 1922, the square received a new name – Oktyabrskaya.
In 1950, the first metro station, Oktyabrskaya, was opened on the square. Initially, it was called “Kaluzhskaya,” but in 1961, it was renamed “Oktyabrskaya.” In October 1962, the Oktyabrskaya station was added to it – a radial one with access to Bolshaya Yakimanka (then – Dimitrova Street). A vast transfer hub was formed under the square.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Garden Ring was reconstructed. A tunnel was laid under the square, connecting Krymsky Val with Korovy and Zhitnaya Streets. The tunnel is six-lane, with three lanes in each direction.
In 1992, the square was returned to its historical name.
In 1985, a bronze monument to Lenin was erected in the middle of the square by the sculptors L. E. Kerbel and V. A. Fedorov and the architect G. V. Makarevich.
House number 1 houses the Russian State Children’s Library.
The facade of the square overlooks the building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
Formally, it is considered to be house number 16 on Zhitnaya Street. The building stands precisely where the Church of the Icon of Our Lady of Kazan was previously located.
- Metro stations “Oktyabrskaya” of the Ring and Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya lines
- Buses: m1, 111, 196, e10, e12, n11 – along Leninsky Prospekt
- Electric buses: m16, 297 – along Leninsky Prospekt
- Bus B – along the Garden Ring
- E85 bus – along Zhitnaya and Mytnaya streets
- Trams: 14, 26, 47 – on Shabolovka street