81-705/706/704 Ema/Emx/Em

Railcars of the Em type and their modifications were produced in 1967-1980 for the Leningrad and Moscow metro.

Type E cars had a different distance between the side sliding doors compared to type D cars and therefore were not suitable for closed-type stations of the Leningrad Metro. In addition, type E cars were not equipped with an automatic guidance system for more accurate stopping at such stations.

In this regard, the Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant redesigned E-type cars, creating three new types of cars:

  • the head cars of the Ema type (factory designation 81-705) are equipped with automatic guidance devices of the PMSAUP system and devices for receiving signals from track sensors;
  • the tail cars of the Emx type (factory designation 81-706) – have only devices for turning on and off the automatic guidance devices of the head cars;
  • intermediate cars of type Em (factory designation 81-704).

At the moment, they are the oldest units of rolling stock currently operating with passengers in the CIS.


When released, each Em car had a driver’s cabin on one side, separated from the cabin by a partition with a door in the center, the window of which was always sealed so that passengers would not distract the driver (in later modifications the door does not have a window), however, if the train was formed from an odd number of cars, in it the driver’s cabin of one of the middle cars could be turned to face the passenger end wall of the other, which allowed passengers to partially see its equipment. In the front part of the cabin, there is an end door with glass in the center; there are two windshields on either side of it. The control panel is located on the right side opposite the right window. To the left of the console, a controller handle is installed on a special raised platform, and to the right are brake valves. Opposite the control panel to the left of the door is the parking brake lever (the so-called “mountain brake”). The door to enter the cabin is located on the left.

The passenger cabin has 4 automatic double-leaf sliding doors on each side for passengers to enter and exit; between the doorways along the central aisle there are soft sofas facing the center and with their backs to the windows. The sofas in the opening between the automatic doors are six-seater, in the end part opposite the narrow windows on the opposite side of the cabin are three-seater.

The ceiling of the car consists of three parts – a central one and two lowered side ones, and has natural ventilation grilles at the border of the side parts. On the ceiling along the interior there are three rows of round lampshades with incandescent lamps – one in the center and two at the edges. Subsequently, incandescent lamps were replaced with LED lamps during modernization. Handrails are attached to the ceiling of the carriages above the seats. The walls of the cars were initially covered with yellow lincrust wallpaper, which was later replaced with white or light gray plastic. The side windows in the space between the doors are equipped with sliding windows. The cars are equipped with passenger-driver communication devices located on the sides of the doorways.

Ema-502/Em-501/Emx-503 (81-501/502/503)

Leningrad Carriage Works named after. I. E. Egorova, producing cars of types Em, Em, Emx according to the drawings of the Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant, at the same time carried out some processing of these drawings in terms of body structure. In November 1969, the Egorov plant produced the experimental car Em-501 No. 3894 according to modified drawings. The new car had significantly improved interior decoration, trolleys with non-reinforced frames were rolled under the car, and the electrical and pneumatic equipment of Em type cars was used.

In 1971, the plant named after I. E. Egorov switched to producing for the Leningrad Metro, instead of cars of the Ema, Em and Emx types, intermediate cars of the Em-501 type (factory designation 81-501), head cars of the Ema-502 type (81-502) and tail type Emkh-503 (81-503) with bodies like those of car No. 3894, but unlike the latter, had three corrugations above the window sill instead of two. Such cars were produced with reinforced bogies of the Ezh type cars.

In total, during the period 1969-1975, the Egorov plant produced 202 cars of the Em-501 type, 80 of the Em-502 type and 22 of the Emkh-503 type. The production of cars of the Em-501 type continued until 1978, and of the Em-502 type until 1980 inclusive. Head cars of type Em-502 can also be used as intermediate cars if necessary, if intermediate cars of type Em-501 are not available.

Cars of the Emx-503 type have not been produced since 1973, since due to some changes in the automatic guidance system, two identical head cars of the Emx-502 type began to be installed at the head and tail of trains. For the convenience of placing train auto guidance devices and radio equipment, these cars, like cars of the Echs and Ezh3 types, were equipped with compartments instead of cabinets. Cars of types Em-501 (from No. 6252) and Ema-502 (from No. 6313) were produced with an electrical backup train control circuit made according to the Leningrad version. At the same time, the basic electrical diagram of the cars began to correspond to the new drawing No. OTD-355-029. Subsequently, all previously built carriages of the Ema, Em and Emx types were equipped with a backup train control scheme according to the Leningrad version.

Released in December 1973, two Ema-502 type cars No. 6313-6314 in 1974 at the Avtovo depot of the Leningrad Metro were equipped with an integrated automatic train control system (KSAUP), including automatic control systems and automatic speed control (ARS). In contrast to the complex system installed on EzhZ type cars, on these cars the auto guidance and ARS systems had common executive equipment for train control, as well as equipment for comparing the set and actual speeds of the train, created according to other principles.

Due to the absence of thyristor-pulse control of the excitation of traction electric motors on cars of types Em-501 and Ema-502, which is used on cars of type Ezh3 and promotes effective braking under the control of the ARS, regardless of the speed of movement, the KSAUP function included limiting the braking effect at high speeds for preventing all-round fire on the collectors of traction motors. Unlike SAMM, trains were stopped during the KSAUP using so-called active sensors that received commands from a central point.

On the first cars of the Em-501 type, the power supply for control circuits and automation systems (including auto guidance) was provided by a common battery 56NKN-60, later (on cars with No. 6031) a 56NKN-80 battery was installed instead.

In 1971-1972, the plant named after. I. E. Egorova produced carriages of the types Ema-502, Em-501 and Emx-503 for the Leningrad Metro, equipped with the PMSAUP automatic guidance system. As the Moscow-Petrograd line was extended, these cars were sent to the Avtovo depot, and then to the Moskovskoye depot, which opened in early 1973. Cars of types Ema-502 and Yem-501 produced in 1973-1975 also arrived at the Avtovo depot mainly for operation on the Kirovsko-Vyborg line, equipped with automatic control system.

Since August 1973, reinforced springs of the central spring suspension were installed on all cars of types Ema-502, Em-501, Em-508T with No. 6290 (except for cars No. 6301, 6326, 6332-6333, 6336), and since 1974 on cars No. 6382-6385, 6393-6395, 6397 and above – small-sized axle box covers, like on Ezh3 type cars. For the convenience of locating the ARS receiving coils, trolleys with a modified arrangement of brake block springs, as on Ezh3 type cars, were rolled under cars with No. 6437.

Cars of types Ema-502, Em-501 and Emx-503 can only be coupled with cars of types Ema, Em and Emx. However, after a slight modification in the equipment, these cars can be coupled with cars of type E, Ezh, Ezh1. The cars of the Tbilisi and Kyev metro were modified in a similar way. Ema-502 type car No. 6373 was converted into an ARS laboratory at the Leningrad Metro. Cars of the Ema-502 type have been in use in the Tbilisi metro since their entry into service to the present day, but as modernized cars. They were given the factory designation Ema-502M. Both head and intermediate cars are used in Tbilisi.

On the Saburtalinskaya line, intermediate cars Ema-502M are used together with 81-717M/714M, but the coloring is similar to 81-71M.

Unlike the 81-717M/714M cars based on the 81-71M, these have a video information system for passengers, video surveillance in the cars, new head masks of the original production, a new control panel and gray-black-white coloring. (There is no video surveillance or video information system in intermediate cars for the Saburtalinskaya line.)

Assembly: Leningrad A. Egorova wagon plant (USSR/Russia)

Years of production: 1969—1980

Production: 150 units

Capacity: 264 passengers (42 seats/wagon)

Length (intermediate/first wagon): 19,210 mm 

Width: 2700 mm

Height: 3695 mm

Track gauge: 1520 mm

Material: stainless steel

Type of current and voltage: 750 V (DC)

Powerplant: 4× ДК-108Г

Output power: 4× 68 kW

Max speed: 90 km/h

Weight: 32.2 t

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Read more: History of railways with Alex Meltos ...