Antoni Tàpies i Puig

Antoni Tàpies i Puig, Marquisate of Tàpies (Barcelona, December 13, 1923 – February 6, 2012) was a painter, sculptor and theorist of Catalan art. He was one of the main advocates of informalism and is considered one of the most prominent Catalan artists of the 20th century. Fundació Antoni Tàpies in Barcelona is a study and conservation centre of the artists’ works.

Tàpies was self-taught, he created his own style in the avant-garde art of the 20th century combining tradition and innovation within an abstract style, full of symbolism, giving a great relevance to the material substrate of the work. It is important to emphasize the spiritual sense that inspires his work, where the material transcends its state in a deep analysis of the human condition.

Tàpies’s work has been highly valued internationally and exhibited at the most prestigious museums in the world.

Throughout his career he has received numerous awards and distinctions, among which we should highlight those of: the Wolf Prize in Arts from the Wolf Foundation (1981), the Gold Medal of the Generalitat de Catalunya (1983), the Prince of Asturias Prize for Arts (1990), the Picasso Medal of UNESCO (1993) and the Velázquez Prize for Plastic Arts (2003). In recognition of his artistic career, King Juan Carlos I granted him the title of Marquisate of Tàpies on April 9, 2010.

“The work of Antoni Tàpies is part of the tradition of the explosions that from time to time occur in our country and shake up so many dead ideas. It is truly Barcelonian work with universal irradiation. That’s why it deserves my admiration.” Joan Miró.

Biography

Tàpies was the son of a lawyer, Josep Tàpies i Mestres and Maria Puig i Guerra, who was a daughter of a family of Catalan politicians, and grandson of the bookseller Francesc Puig Alfonso. He was a student of the German College of Barcelona. Between 1939 and 1943 he finished high school at Escola Pia de Balmes. The profession of his father and the relations of his maternal family with members of Catalan political life meant that he grew up in a liberal atmosphere. Tàpies always remarked that the confrontation between his father’s anti-clericalism and his mother’s orthodox Catholicism led him to the personal pursuit of a new spirituality, which he found in Oriental philosophies and religions, mainly Zen Buddhism.

As he confessed, his artistic vocation arose with a Christmas edition of the magazine D’Ací i d’Allà of 1934, which featured an extensive panorama of international modern art. One of the events that marked his life was the time of his convalescence due to tuberculosis that he suffered at age 18. It made him rethink the meaning of his life, as well as that of his vocation, during his recovery he devoted himself intensely to drawing. The feverish states that he suffered caused frequent hallucinations that, eventually, were essential for the development of his work. During his stay at the sanatorium of Puig d’Olena (1942-1943) he took refuge in music and literature (Ibsen, Nietzsche, Thomas Mann), and made copies of Van Gogh and Picasso.

He combines his law studies at the University of Barcelona, which he had begun in 1943, with his passion for art. Finally, in 1946, he opted for painting and abandoned his studies. He is predominantly self-taught, he only studied for a short time at the academy of Nolasc Valls. In 1946, he started his first painting studio in Barcelona.

In 1948 he became one of the founders of the magazine and the movement known as Dau al Set, related to Surrealism and Dadaism. The Catalan poet Joan Brossa was the leader of this movement, other artist that participated in it, together with Tàpies, included Modest Cuixart, Joan-Josep Tharrats, Joan Ponç, Arnau Puig and later Juan-Eduardo Cirlot. The magazine lasted until 1956, but Tàpies, who had already left for Paris, only collaborated sporadically and the group as such can be considered dissolved since 1951.

The first works of Tàpies are framed within surrealism and figuration (period that he tends to hide), but soon he changed his style and became one of the main exponents of informalism. Representative of the so-called “matterism painting” Tàpies used in his works materials that are not considered artistic, but rather waste and scraps, such as ropes, paper or marble powder.

From 2 to 22 of October 1948, Tàpies participated, together with Modest Cuixart i Tàpies, Maria Girona i Benet, Josep Hurtuna, Jordi Mercadé i Farrés, Ramon Rogent i Perés, Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Josep Maria de Sucre i de Grau, Jacint Morera i Pujals, Pere Tort and Francesc Todó Garcia, in the First Saló of October in the Galleries Layetanas, showing two works from 1947: Pintura and Encolat. The same year he met Joan Miró, one of his most admired artists. In 1949 he participated in the exhibition A side of the young Catalan painting at the French Institute of Barcelona, where he was seen by Eugeni d’Ors, who invited him to the 7th Hall of the Onze, in Madrid (1950). In 1950, he made his first individual exhibition at the Galeries Laietanes in Barcelona, where he returned to exhibit in 1952. Thanks to a scholarship from the French Institute, he traveled to Paris (1950), and managed to exhibit at the Carnegie Pittsburgh international competition; where he would meet Picasso. Also in 1950 he was selected to represent Spain at the Venice Biennale, where he participated on several occasions.

In 1953 he exhibited in Chicago and Madrid. That same year, the merchant Martha Jackson organized him an exhibition in New York, introducing him in the United States. Also in 1953 he won the first prize of Jazz Hall Barcelona, and he met the critic Michel Tapié, advisor of Stadler Gallery Paris, where he exhibited in 1956 for the first time and, subsequently, several times more. In 1954 he married Teresa Barba i Fàbregas, with whom he had three children: Antoni, Miquel i Clara.

In 1955 he founded the Taüll group, together with Modest Cuixart, Joan-Josep Tharrats, Josep Guinovart, Marc Aleu, Jordi Mercadé and Jaume Muxart. That year he was also awarded the III Hispano-American Biennale in Barcelona, and exhibited in Stockholm with Tharrats, both were presented by Salvador Dalí. In 1958 he had a special exhibition room at the Venice Biennale, and won the first Carnegie and the UNESCO Prize.

In 1960 he participated in the exhibition New Spanish Painting and Sculpture at the MOMA in New York. Since then, he has exhibited in Barcelona, New York, Washington, Paris, Berne, Munich, Bilbao, Buenos Aires, Hannover, Caracas, Zurich, Rome, Sankt Gallen, Cologne, Kassel, London, Madrid, Cannes, etc., and received awards in Tokyo (1960), New York (1964) and Menton (1966). In 1967, he was noticed by the merchant Aimé Maeght and exhibited at the Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris (1973), New York (1975) and in the Maeght Foundation (1976).

In the 1970s his work became more political in its nature, giving support to Catalanism and opposition to Franco’s regime, usually with words and signs on the paintings, such as the four bars of the Catalan flag (L’esperit català, 1971). This activism led to actions such as the closure at the Caputxins convent of Sarrià for constituting a democratic student union (1966) or the march to Montserrat in protest of the Burgos process (1970), for which he was jailed for a short period of time.

Since then he has performed numerous personal or anthological exhibitions: Tokyo, 1976; New York, 1977; Rome, 1980; Amsterdam, 1980; Madrid, 1980; Venice, 1982; Milan, 1985; Vienna, 1986; Brussels, 1986; MNCARS, Madrid, 2000; Pavilion Micovna of the Royal Garden of Prague, 1991; MOMA, New York, 1992; Guggenheim Museum (New York), 1995; Kirin Art Space Harajuku, Tokyo, 1996; Center for Contemporary Art Luigi Pecci, Prato, 1997. The work of Antoni Tàpies has been exhibited in the main museums of modern art around the world. In addition to being awarded an honorary doctorate by several universities, Tàpies was awarded several prizes, among them, in 1981, the Wolf de les Arts Foundation; In 1983, the Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia; and, in 1990, the Prince of Asturias Award for Arts.

In 1990, the Foundation Antoni Tàpies was opened, an institution created by the artist himself to promote contemporary art, located in the building of the old Montaner i Simón Publishing House, modernist work by Lluís Domènech i Montaner. Additionally, the foundation has a museum, with a great quantity of pieces donated by the artist, furthermore it has a library and an auditorium.

He was also an author of stage sets (Or i sal, by Joan Brossa, 1961), illustrations for books, mainly for Brossa (El pa a la barca, 1963; Fregoli, 1969; Nocturn matinal, 1970; Poems from the Catalan, 1973; Ú no és ningú,1979), and he also devoted himself to poster making. In 1984 there was an exhibition dedicated to his main cartographic work, as well as graphic production: engravings, lithographs, screen printing, etc. In 2002 he made the poster for the Mercè festival in Barcelona.

As an art theoretician, Tàpies published articles in Destino, Serra d’Or, La Vanguardia, Avui, etc. most of them compiled in the books: La pràctica de l’art (1970), L’art contra l’estètica (1974), Reality as art (1982) and For a modern and progressive art (1985), as well as the autobiography Memòria personal (1977). In his works he discusses both traditional art, as well as, the extreme avant-garde of conceptual art.

With the transition to the 21st century Tàpies did not stop to receive numerous recognitions both nationally and internationally, retrospective exhibitions of his work were organised in the best museums and galleries in the world. In 2003, on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, a retrospective was held with his best works at the Fundació Antoni Tàpies, with an open day for the public. Moreover, in 2004, at the MACBA in Barcelona, a tribute to the artist was organized, with a large exhibition consisting of 150 works from the 1940s to the present, paintings, sculptures, drawings and various creations of the great artist.

Among his last public events, in 2005, his collaboration with José Saramago in defense of the Basque pacifist group ‘Elkarri’ should be highlighted, as well as, the donation of his work 7 de novembre to the Parliament of Catalonia, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of its restoration. In October 2007, he ceded his original work to the campaign against the closure of TV3 broadcaster in Valencia, allowing reproductions of this work to be sold for ten euros and thus, collect funds to pay the fine imposed on ACPV by the Generalitat of Valencia. The same year he left a message at the Caixa de Letras of the Instituto Cervantes, which is not to be open until 2022. On April 9, 2010, he was appointed the Marquisate of Tàpies by King Juan Carlos I.

He died on February 6, 2012 in Barcelona at the age of 88.

Style

Practically self-taught in the artistic field, Tàpies was a man of great culture, a lover of philosophy (Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche), literature (Fiódor Dostoievski) and music (Richard Wagner). He was a great advocate of Catalan culture, of which he was deeply imbued: he was a great admirer of the mystic writer Ramon Llull (for whom he made a book of engravings between 1973 and 1985), as well as the Catalan Romanesque and the modernism architecture by Antoni Gaudí. At the same time, he was in love with Oriental art and philosophy, which, like Tàpies, dilutes the border between matter and spirit, between man and nature. Influenced by Buddhism, he showed in his work how pain, both physical and spiritual, is something inherent in life.

His initiation with art was through realistic drawings, mainly portraits of relatives and friends. His first contact with the avant-garde of the time led him to adhere to a surrealism of magical tone, he was influenced by artists such as Joan Miró, Paul Klee and Max Ernst, a style that crystallized in his stage of Dau al Set.

Dau al Set was a movement influenced mainly by Dadaism and Surrealism, but also by many literary, philosophical and musical sources: it rediscovered the Mallorcan mysticist Ramon Llull, the music of Wagner, Arnold Schönberg and jazz, Gaudí’s artistic work and literary work of Poe and Stéphane Mallarmé, the philosophy of Nietzsche and German existentialism, the psychology of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung, etc. His painting was figurative, with magical and fantasy components, as well as a metaphysical character, of concern for the destiny of man.

After his stage of Dau al Set, in 1951, he began a phase of geometric abstraction, moving to informalism, in 1953. In 1951 he traveled to Paris, where he discovered the new European currents, as well as the new pictorial techniques (drip painting, scratchboard, etc.), and he made contact with informalism artists such as Jean Fautrier or Jean Dubuffet. Informalism was a movement that emerged after the Second World War, which showed the impact of the war conflict in a pessimistic conception of man, influenced by existentialist philosophy. Artistically, the origins of informalism can be traced to the abstraction of Vassili Kandinski or in experiments conducted with various materials in Dadaism. Informalism also seeks the interaction with the viewer, within the concept of “open work” expressed by the Italian theorist Umberto Eco.

Within informalism, Tàpies work is classified within the so-called “matter painting”, also known as “dirty art”, which is characterized by mixing technique and the use of heterogeneous materials, often waste material, mixed with traditional art supplies, in a search for a new language of artistic expression. The other main exponents of the matter painting were: the French artist Fautrier and Dubuffet and Spanish Manolo Millares. Matter informalism has been for Tàpies the main means of expression since the 1950s.

The most characteristic works of Tàpies are those that apply mixture of various materials in wall compositions, to which he added distinctive elements, like signs, that emphasize the communicative nature of the work, similar to the popular art of “graffiti”. This ‘wall’ art always attracted Tàpies, who also liked to relate his style to the etymology of his own name (the artist surname means wall in catalan):

“The wall is an image that I found a little by surprise. It was after a few paint sessions during which I struggled with the plastic material I used and filled it with such an amount of scratches that, suddenly, the painting changed, it made a qualitative leap, and it was transformed into a still and quiet surface. I found that I had painted a wall, which related to my name at the same time.”

However, in Tàpies work of fundamental significance is the iconographic nature that is added to his works through different signs, such as crosses, moons, asterisks, letters, numbers, geometric figures, etc. For Tàpies, these elements had an allegorical significance related to the artist’s inner world, evoking transcendental themes such as life and death, or solitude, the barriers in communication or sexuality. Each element has its specific meaning: in terms of letters, the A and T stand for the initials of his name or for Antoni and Teresa (his wife); X stands for a mystery, something unknown, or a way to scratch something; the letter M he explains as follows:

“We all have an M drawn in the lines of our palm, which refers to death*, and on the foot there are wrinkles in the form of S; all combined it was Sure Death.”

*death in Catalan is mort

Another distinctive characteristic in Tàpies work was its chromatic austerity, generally using austere, cool, earthy ranges, such as ocher, brown, gray, beige or black. The artist gave it his own explanation:

“If I managed to paint only gray paintings, it is partly because of the reaction I had to the colorism that characterized the art of the generation before me, a painting that used many primary colors. Being constantly surrounded by the impact of advertising and the characteristic signage of our society also led me to seek a more internalized color, which could be defined as the penumbra, the light of dreams and our inner world. The color brown is related to a philosophy closely related to Franciscanism, like the habit of the Franciscan friars. There is a tendency to look for what the bright colors say: red, yellow, but for me, grays or browns are more internal, more related to the philosophical world. ”

In his works Tàpies expressed his great worry for the problems of humans: illnes, deth, solitud, pain or sex. He gives us a new, simpler vision of reality, raising it to the heights of true spirituality. The vital conception of Tàpies raises out from the existentialist philosophy, which highlights the material and mortal condition of man, the anguish of the existence as described by Sartre. The solitud, illness, poverty seen in Tàpies works are also found in the work of Samuel Beckett or Eugene Ionesco. Existentialism points to the tragic destiny of man, but also vindicates his freedom, the importance of the individual, his capacity for action in life. Thus, Tàpies through his art tried to reflect on our existence:

“I think that a work of art should leave the viewer perplexed, make him meditate the meaning of life.”

In the 1970s, influenced by pop art, he began to use more solid objects in his works, such as pieces of furniture.

owever, the use of everyday elements in the work of Tàpies did not have the same purpose as in pop-art, where they were used to trivialize the consumerism society and the mass media; in Tàpies’s work the spiritual substance was always present, in his work the simple elements had evocative meaning of a greater universal order.

Tàpies is often considered a precursor of Arte Povera, in the use of ordinary and waste materials, although again it is necessary to emphasize the conceptual difference of both styles.

Technique

In his most characteristic informalist work, Tàpies used techniques that blended traditional pigments with materials such as sand, clothes, straw, etc. with predominance of collage and assemblage, and a texture similar to that of bas-relief.

Tàpies defined his technique as “mixed”: he painted on cloth, in medium formats, in a horizontal position, applying a homogeneous layer of monochrome paint, on top of which he applied the “mixture” of crushed marble powder, binder, pigment and oil, which he applied with spatula or with his own hands.

When it was almost dry he created grattage with burlap, applied on the surface. Ones it was attached, he tore it, creating a relief structure, with ripped areas, scratched or even drilled, which contrasted with the clusters and matrix densities of other areas of the painting. Followed by another grattage with various tools (fist, knife, scissors, brush). Finally, he added signs (crosses, moons, asterisks, letters, numbers, etc.), as well as stains, applied by dripping, in compositions that resembles graffiti.

He did not add fixation elements, which is the reason why his works degraded quickly. The mixture he used was rather ephemeral. However, Tàpies defended the decomposition, as a loss of the idea of eternity in art, he liked that his works reflect the sensation of the passage of time. This decomposition was further strengthened by his own contributions, like the cuts he made in his works, that according to him were a reflection of nature.

Work

Tàpies began with drawing, usually with Chinese ink, creating mainly portraits, of great realism, usually of relatives and friends: Josep Gudiol, Antoni Puigvert, Pere Mir i Martorell, Autoretrat (1944). He then got interested in innovative techniques, leaving his first traces in the work titled Zoom (1946), which is an inverted portrait, in the form of a sun, with a yellow tone influenced by Van Gogh and a very pure calcite white, giving a strong luminosity.

By 1947, he made more fluid drawings, inspired by Matisse. Later, he started to create his truly personal works, with heavy materials and short, separate brushstrokes, with a primitive and expressionist air, with a magical and pantheistic theme (Triptic, 1948).

During his Dau al Set stage, Tàpies moved on to a figurative magical Surrealism, influenced by Joan Miró, Paul Klee and Max Ernst: Driades, nimfes i harpies (1950), with nocturnal atmosphere, vegetation motifs, inspired by the works of Henri Rousseau; El gat, inspired by Klee, strong chiaroscuro, fantasy world, unrealistic, dark colors; El dolor de Brunhilde, with influence of german expressionism in the colour contrasts, light and shadow.

Finally, after Dau al Set, in 1951 began his phase of geometric abstraction, progressing, in 1953, to informalism, with matter tendency, that would become characteristic of his work. His works started to display thicker density, with very thick paint layers, incorporating the grattage, which he used to highlight by creating relief. He also made collages with newspaper or cardboard, and recycled or even waste materials, showing the influence of Kurt Schwitters (Collage de creus, 1947; Collage de cordes i arròs). The colours he typically used were dark, including: brown, ocher, beige, chestnut brown, black; White was usually “dirty”, mixed with dark tones. Only sporadically he experimented with vibrant colors, such as red (Vermell i negre amb zones arrencades, 1963-1965) and blue (Blau i dues creus, 1980).

1955 to 1960 was the most radical matterism period in his art, with an austere style, neutral earthy colors (brown, beige, gray), and use of signs: cross, T (from Tàpies), saltire (X), number 4 (for the four elements and the four cardinal points, as a symbol of the earth), etc.: Gran pintura grisa (1956), Gran oval (1956), Oval blanc (1957), Pintura en forma de T (1960).

Another important aspect in the work of Tàpies is the human body, usually presented in separate parts, in schematic forms, often with deteriorated appearance, looking torn, battered, with wholes. Some of its examples include: El foc interior (1953), representing human torso formed with burlap and decomposed by burning; Relleu ocre i rosa (1965), kneeling female figure; Matèria en forma d’axil•la (1968), a torso with an armpit which has real hair; Crani blanc (1981) which resembles the “vanitas” of the Spanish baroque, reminder of the passing of life; Cos (1986) which shows a young figure, evocative of death, which is accentuated by the word Tartaros, Greek for hell; Dies d’Aigua I (1987), a body submerged in waves of gray paint, evoking the legend of Hero and Leandre.

Also characteristic of Tàpies work is his profuse use of various objects within his works: Capsa de cordills (1946) already anticipated this tendency, with a box full of cords arranged radially, resembling hair; Porta metàl•lica i violí (1956) a curious composition of door and violin, apparently antithetical, one for its prosaic character and another for its high artistic and intellectual connotation; Palla premsada amb X (1969), presenting straw which for Tàpies means the revival of life, its connection with solar myths; Coixí i ampolla (1970), a new conjunction of two different objects, which contrasts a bourgeois refining cushion with a simple glass bottle.

Geometric figures are another important aspect in Tàpies work, perhaps influenced by Catalan Romanesque or primitive and Eastern art: Oval blanc (1957), a circle as a solar symbol of perfection and eternity; Matèria plegada (1981), canvas similar to the shroud of Christ, with some aspects that resemble Zurbarán work, a painter admired by Tàpies; L’escala (1974), stairs used as a symbol of ascension, inspired by Miró’s works such as Dog barking at the moon or The Harlequin’s Carnival.

Although the evolution of Tàpies work was uniform since he began with informalism, over time subtle differences in both techniques and content were produced. Between 1963 and 1968 his work was influenced, to some extent, by pop-art in its approach to the world of the surrounding reality, in which the everyday object stands out: Matèria en forma de barret, El marc, La dona, Matèria en forma de nou, Taula i cadires (1968), Matèria amb manta (1968), Gran paquet de palla (1968), Palla premsada (1969). Between 1969 and 1972 he gave preponderance to the subjects related to Catalonia: Atenció Catalunya (1969), L’esperit català (1971), Pintura romànica amb barretina (1971), Sardana (1971), Inscripcions i quatre barres sobre arpillera (1971-1972), Catalunya-Llibertat (1972).

During the period 1970-1971, he went through a conceptualist stage, working with scrap materials, dirty or with grease stains: Pica de rentar amb creu, Moble amb palla, Palangana amb Vanguardias, Palla coberta amb drap, Pintura romànica amb barretina. He went through a crisis which lasted until the end of the 70s, during which he focused on sculpture and engraving. Since 1980 he has reviewed techniques and themes, returning to a certain informalism. During this decade, due to the influence of postmodern art, especially German neo-expressionism, he also incorporated more figurative elements, generally as a tribute to traditional styles and artists of the history of art, examples include Record (1982), which alludes to Leonardo Da Vinci, or Matèria ocre (1984) and Taca marró sobre blanc (1986), which relate to Baroque.

In the 90s, he received a series of institutional commissions: in 1991 he performed Les quatre cròniques, in the Sala Tarradellas of the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya. In 1992 he was commissioned with the mural decoration of the pavilions of Catalonia and the International Olympic Committee for the Universal Exhibition in Seville. That same year there was a strong controversy over the project commissioned by the Barcelona City Council to decorate the Oval Room of the Montjuïc National Palace, the headquarters of the MNAC. Tàpies designed a sock-shaped sculpture, 18 meters high; According to him, its significance was that of “a humble sock inside which meditation is proposed and with which I want to represent the importance in the cosmic order of small things.” However, due to the popular rejection of the project and the opposition of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the work was finally cancelled. Nevertheless, years later the artist resumed the project and built it on the terrace of Fundació Antoni Tàpies, as the main representative work of the Foundation, presented after its reopening in 2010, after two years of reform of the Museum. However, the original 18 meter project was not built, but a reduced version of it of 2.75 meters.

In 1994 Tàpies was commissioned by Pompeu Fabra University to create a laic chapel, that is, a space for reflection and meditation. The space was part of Àgora Rubió i Balaguer of the university, designed by the architect Jordi Garcés, it joins underground the old buildings of the Roger de Llúria and Jaume I, in addition to the chapel there is an auditorium and an exhibition hall. Tàpies conceived the space as a refuge from the outside world, leaving the architectural structure as it was, with concrete walls, installing a series of artistic interventions to complement the gathering air of the chapel: mural Díptic de la campana and sculpture Serp i plat, as well as reed chairs hanging from a wall and a burlap carpet, all to create a meditation and rest ambient. The sculpture is placed on an altar, with a large plate of porcelain on which the snake is placed; the antecedent of the sock project for the National Palace, which would have also been placed on an altar.

When it comes to sculpture, since he began with the technique of assemblage in the 70’s, he went on to use terracotta since 1981 and bronze since 1987, always in a line similar to that of its painting, with mixed techniques and use of recycled or waste materials, creating sometimes quite unusual associations that seek to impact the viewer. We should highlight his Homage to Picasso (Parc de la Ciutadella, 1983), and the ceramic mosaic of Plaça Catalunya in Sant Boi de Llobregat (1983), as well as the installation entitled Cloud and chair at Fundació Tàpies (1989).

Selected work

● Zoom (1946) – oil and calcite powder on canvas, 65 x 54 cm, Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.

● Creu de paper de diari (Cross from newspapers) (1947) – Collage and watercolor on paper, 40 x 31 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Triptic (1948) – Oil on canvas, 97 x 65, 97 x 130, 97 x 65 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Collage d’arròs i cordes (Collage of rice and ropes) (1949) – Painting and collage on cardboard, 75 x 52.5 cm, Private collection, Paris.

● L’escarnidor de diademes (1949) – oil on canvas, 92 x 73 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● La barberia dels maleïts i dels elegits (The barber of the damned and the chosen ones) (1950) – Oil on canvas, 97 x 130 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Driades, nimfes i harpies (1950) – Oil on canvas, 97 x 130 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Spiritual Song (1950) – watercolor and ink on paper, 39 x 34 cm, MACBA Collection. Coming from the Art Fund of the Generalitat of Catalonia, before a collection of Salvador Riera.

● El foc interior (1953) – Mixed technique on canvas, 60 x 73 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Blanc amb taques roges (White with red stains) (1954) – Mixed technique on canvas, 115 x 88 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Terra i pintura (1956) – Mixed technique on wood, 33.5 x 67.5 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Laberint (1956) – Mixed technique on canvas, 65 x 81 cm, Private collection, Weiden.

● Pintura ocre (1959) – Mixed technique on canvas, 240 x 190 cm, MACBA, Barcelona.

● Relleu gris sobre negre (Gray relief on black) (1959) – mixed technique on canvas, 194.6 x 170 cm, MOMA, New York.

● Forma blanca (White form) (1959) – Mixed technique on canvas, 116.3 x 81.5 cm, MACBA, Barcelona.

● M (1960) – Mixed technique on fabric mounted on wood, 195 x 170 cm, Private collection, Liège.

● Relleu amb cordes (1963) – Mixed technique on canvas, 148.5 x 114 cm, Fundació Antoni Tàpies.

● En forma de cadira (In the shape of a chair) (1966) – Mixed technique on canvas, 130 x 97 cm, Private collection.

● Collage en forma de peu (1966) – collage on paper, 105 x 87 cm, Modern Museet, Stockholm.

● Matèria en forma d’axil•la (1968) – mixed technique on canvas, 65,5 x 100,5 cm, Private collection.

● Caixa d’embalar (1969) – Assemblage of wood and paper, 170 x 125 x 8 cm, Martha Jackson Gallery, New York.

● Tribute to Richard Wagner (1969) – Acrylic and collage on paper, 76 x 40 cm, Joan Brossa Foundation, Barcelona

● Palla premsada a l’X (1969) – Mixed technique on canvas, 200 x 175 cm, MNCARS, Madrid.

● Pintura amb manilles (1970) – Assemblage and painting on canvas, 130 x 167 cm, Private collection.

● Cadira coberta (1970) – object-assemblage, 77.5 x 69.5 x 56.5 cm, Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Stadt, Duisburg.

● Taula de despatx amb palla (1970) – object-assemblage, 108 x 130 x 92 cm, Adrien Maeght, Paris.

● Ocre amb fletxa (1971) – Mixed technique on wood, 195 x 79 cm, MACBA, Barcelona.

● L’esperit català (1971) – Mixed technique on wood, 200 x 270 cm, private collection, Madrid.

● Braç (1973) – Mixed technique on wood, 82 x 130 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● L’escala (1974) – Mixed technique on wood, 250 x 300 cm, Maeght Gallery, Paris.

● Efecte de bastó en relleu (1979) – mixed technique on clothes and fabric, 134.5 x 162 cm, Maeght Gallery, Barcelona.

● Matèria sobre fusta amb oval (1979) – mixed technique on wood, 270 x 200 cm, Maeght Gallery, Paris.

● Blau amb dues creus (1980) – Mixed technique on blanket and fabric, 206 x 146 cm, private collection.

● Drac (1980) – painting, pencil and varnish on wood, 89 x 146.5 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Nu de vernís (1980) – Mixed technique on canvas, 65 x 100 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Amor, a mort (1980) – painting on canvas, 200.5 x 276 cm, IVAM, Valencia.

● Crani blanc (1981) – Painting on cardboard, 52.5 x 42.5 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Peu sobre blanc (1981) – mixed technique on wood, 162 x 97 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Matèria plegada (1981) – mixed technique on a table, 130 x 130 cm, Maeght Gallery, Barcelona.

● Roig i negre (1981) – Mixed technique on wood, 170 x 195 cm, private collection, North Egremont, Massachusetts.

● A tombada (1982) – paint and varnish on wood, 162 x 261 cm, Renault Foundation, Boulogne-sur-Mer.

● Vernís amb formes negres (1982) – paint and varnish on canvas, 200.5 x 275 cm, Lelong Gallery, Paris.

● Matèria del temps (1983) – painting on wood, 270 x 220 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Tríptic dels graffiti (1984) – Mixed technique on canvas, 195 x 300 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● M blanc (1984) – paint and varnish on wood, 270 x 220 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Lector (1984) – painting on canvas, 100 x 100 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Matèria ocre (1984) – Painting on wood, 195 x 170 cm, Private collection, Barcelona.

● Tors (1985) – paint and varnish on wood, 97 x 130 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Dos bastidors (1985) – painting and collage on wood, 250 x 200 cm, Bayeler Gallery, Basel.

● Ulls tancats (1985) – painting on tabletop, 97 x 130 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Gran blanc amb mà (1985) – painting and collage on wood, 200 x 250 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Capitoné (1986) – Painting and assemblage on wood, 130 x 162 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Gran díptic de terra (1987) – Mixed technique on wood, 220 x 600 cm, Lelong Gallery, Paris.

● Portes i fletxes (1987) – paint, varnish and assemblage on canvas, 195.5 x 300 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Blanc i cadira (1987) – Mixed technique and assemblage on canvas, 225 x 330 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Dies d’Aigua II (1987) – paint, pencil and collage on canvas, 60 x 73 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Infinit (1988) – Mixed technique on wood, 250 x 330 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Tres dits (1990) – paint and varnish on canvas, 146 x 114 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Núvol i cadira (Cloud and chair) (1990) – anodized aluminum and stainless steel, 12.7 x 24 x 6.8 cm, Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.

● Inspiració-expiració (1991) – Mixed technique on wood, 225 x 200 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Les quatre cròniques (The four chronicles) (1991) – mixed technique on wood, 251 x 600 cm, Palace of the Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona.

● Logo Design for the University Rovira i Virgili (URV) (1991)

● Pregunta (1992) – Collage, paint and varnish on canvas, 275 x 200.5 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Perfil metàl•lic (1993) – Embossing and collage on metal board, 100 x 84.5 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Rinzen (1993) – mixed technique, MACBA, Barcelona.

● Cap (1995) – Mixed technique on wood, 116.5 x 89 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Llit (Bed) (1995) – Mixed technique on wood, 225 x 400 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Cos i filferros (1996) – paint and assemblage on wood, 162.5 x 260.5 cm, Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.

● Monòleg (1997) – Painting on wood, 175 x 200 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Terra d’ombra (1998) – paint and assemblage on canvas, 220 x 270 cm, Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.

● Peu i cistell (1999) – painting on bronze, 39 x 48 x 52 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Martell (2002) – painting on canvas, 130 x 162 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● 1/2 (2003) – paint and varnish on wood, 200 x 175 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

● Formes en l’espai (2009) – Mixed technique on canvas, 300 x 250 cm, private collection, Barcelona.

Exhibitions

● 1948 – October Hall of Barcelona.

● 1949 – French Institute of Barcelona.

● 1950 – VII Saló dels Onze in Madrid and first individual exhibition in the Galleries Laietanes of Barcelona.

● 1952 – XXVI Venice Biennale and new exhibition at the Galeries Laietanes in Barcelona.

● 1953 – Individual exhibitions at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, the Biosca Gallery in Madrid and the Marshall Field Art Gallery in Chicago.

● 1954 – XXVII Venice Biennale and new exhibition at the Galeries Laietanes in Barcelona.

● 1955 – III Hispano-American Biennale, Barcelona. Individual exhibitions at Sturegallerian in Stockholm and Sala Gaspar in Barcelona.

● 1956 – Galerie Stadler, Paris.

● 1957 – Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, Galerie Stadler in Paris and Galerie Schmela in Düsseldorf.

● 1958 – Special room at the XXIX Venice Biennale.

● 1959 – Exhibitions at the Museum of Art in Bilbao, the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, the Gres Gallery in Washington, the Galerie Stadler in Paris, the Kunsthalle in Berne and the Galerie Van de Loo in Munich (with Antonio Saura).

● 1960 – Exhibitions at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona, the Bilbao Art Museum, the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York and the Galleria dell’Ariete in Milan.

● 1961 – Individual exhibitions at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, the Gres Gallery in Washington and the Galerie Stadler in Paris.

● 1962 – Retrospective exhibitions at the Kestner Gesellschaft in Hanover, the Guggenheim Museum in New York and the Kunsthaus in Zurich.

● 1963 – Exhibitions at the Phoenix Art Center in Phoenix, Arizona, the Pasadena Art Museum in Pasadena, California, Felix Landau Gallery in Los Angeles, Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, Berggruen & Cie. of Paris and Galerie Im Erker in Sankt Gallen.

● 1964 – Special room at the III Documenta in Kassel and exhibitions at Galerie Rudolf Zwirner in Cologne, Galerie Stadler in Paris, Gallery Moos in Toronto and Sala Gaspar in Barcelona.

● 1965 – Retrospective exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London and individual exhibitions at the Rudolf Rudolf’s Galerie Zwirner and the Galerie van de Loo in Munich.

● 1966 – Participation in the Menton Biennale and exhibition at Galerie Stadler in Paris.

● 1967 – Participation in the Ljubljana Biennale, retrospective at the Kunstmuseum of Sankt Gallen and individual exhibitions at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York and the Galerie Maeght in Paris.

● 1968 – Retrospective exhibitions at the Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts in Vienna, Kunstverein in Hamburg and Kölnischer Kunstverein in Cologne, and individual exhibitions at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, the Galerie Maeght in Paris and the Schmela Galerie in Düsseldorf.

● 1969 – Exhibitions at the Galerie Maeght in Paris, the Moos Gallery in Toronto, the Gaspar Room in Barcelona and a retrospective at Kasseler Kunstverein in Kassel.

● 1970 – Martha Jackson Gallery in New York.

● 1971 – Il Collezionista d’Arte Contemporanea de Roma and Galerie Maeght in Zurich.

● 1972 – Galerie Maeght in Paris and retrospective at the Städtische Galerie in Haus Seel of Siegen.

● 1973 – Retrospective exhibitions at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, the Musée Rath in Geneva and the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Charleroi, and individual ones at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, the Jodi Scully Gallery in Los Angeles and the Juana Mordó Gallery in Madrid.

● 1974 – Retrospective exhibitions at Louisiana Museum in Copenhagen, National Gallery in Berlin, Hayward Gallery in London and Glynn Vivian Art Gallery in Swansea, and individual ones at Galerie Maeght in Paris and Moos Gallery in Toronto.

● 1975 – Exhibitions at Maeght Gallery in Barcelona, Galerie Maeght in Zurich, Ruth S. Schaffner Gallery in Los Angeles, Galerie Beyeler in Basel and Martha Jackson Gallery in New York.

● 1976 – Retrospective exhibitions at Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Seibu Museum in Tokyo and Joan Miró Foundation in Barcelona.

● 1977 – Retrospective exhibitions at Albright-Knox Art Gallery (Buffalo, New York), Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago, Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute of San Antonio in Texas, Des Moines Art Center in Des Moines, Iowa, Museum of Contemporary Art in Montreal, Kunstverein in Bremen and Staatliche Kunsthalle in Baden-Baden.

● 1978 – Retrospective exhibitions at Kunstmuseum of Winterthur and Musée de l’Abbaye de Sainte Croix de Les Sables-d’Olonne in France, and individual exhibitions at Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, Maeght Gallery in Barcelona and Schmela Gallery in Düsseldorf.

● 1979 – Exhibitions at Galerie Maeght in Paris and Hastings Gallery of the Spanish Institute in New York, and retrospective at Badischer Kunstverein in Karlsruhe, Germany.

● 1980 – Retrospective exhibitions at the Spanish Museum of Contemporary Art in Madrid, Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, Kunsthalle in Kiel and Wolfgang Gurlitt Museum in Linz, and individual ones at Maeght Galerie in Zurich and Studio Dueci in Rome.

● 1981 – Exhibitions at Maeght Gallery in Barcelona, Maeght Gallery in Zurich, M. Knoedler & Co. of New York and Stephen Wirtz Gallery in San Francisco, and retrospective one at the Fondation du Chateau de Jau, Cases de Pène, France.

● 1982 – Retrospective exhibitions at Palacio de la Lonja in Zaragoza and Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista in Venice, and exhibitions at Marisa del Re Gallery in New York, Galerie Maeght in Paris and Studio Dueci in Rome.

● 1983 – Exhibitions at Galerie Maeght in Zurich, Auditorium of the University of Barcelona, Abbaye de Sénanque de Gordes, Städtische Galerie Prinz-Max-Palais in Karlsruhe and Maeght Gallery in Barcelona, and a retrospective exhibition at Foundation Joan Miró of Barcelona.

● 1984 – Exhibitions at San Telmo Municipal Museum in San Sebastián, Maeght Lelong Gallery in New York, Maeght Lelong Gallery in Zurich, Antonio Machón Gallery in Madrid, Galerie Maeght Lelong in Paris and the Galerie Brusberg in Berlin.

● 1985 – Retrospective exhibitions at Palazzo Reale in Milan and Museum Voor Moderne Kunst in Brussels, individual exhibition at Stephen Wirtz Gallery in San Francisco.

● 1986 – Retrospective exhibitions at Wienes Kunstlerhaus in Vienna and Stedelijk van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven, participation in exhibition for the inauguration of the MNCARS in Madrid and individual exhibitions at Theo Gallery in Madrid, Galerie Maeght Lelong in New York, Abbey of Montmajour d’Arles, Galerie Maeght Lelong in Paris, Joan Prats Gallery in Barcelona and Carles Taché Gallery in Barcelona.

● 1987 – Maeght Gallery in Barcelona, Galerie Lelong in Zurich and Carles Taché Gallery in Barcelona.

● 1988 – Retrospective exhibitions at Salon del Tinell in Barcelona, Llotja in Palma and Cantini Museum in Marseille, and individual exhibitions at the Galerie Lelong in Paris, Annely Juda Fine Arts in London and the Galerie Beyeler in Basel.

● 1989 – Retrospective exhibition at the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen in Düsseldorf and Palace of Fine Arts in Beijing and individual ones at Galerie Lelong in New York, Elkon Gallery in New York and Galerie Lelong in Zurich.

● 1990 – Retrospectives at Antoni Tàpies Foundation in Barcelona and MNCARS in Madrid, and exhibitions at the Galerie Lelong in New York, Galerie Lelong in Paris and Richard Gray Gallery in Chicago.

● 1991 – Individual exhibitions at Mincovna Pavilion of the Prague Royal Castle Gardens, Fuji Television Gallery in Tokyo, Carles Taché Gallery in Barcelona, Galerie Lelong in New York, Antoni Tàpies Foundation in Barcelona, Galerie Lelong in Zurich, Waddington Galleries in London and Galerie Lelong in Paris, as well as, retrospective exhibitions at the Atlantic Center of Modern Art in Las Palmas, Contemporary Art Center of Mexico City, Long Beach Museum of Art in Long Beach, California, Fundação Serralves in Porto, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon and Joan Miró Foundation of Barcelona.

● 1992 – Retrospectives at the Fundació Antoni Tàpies in Barcelona, IVAM in Valencia, Serpentine Gallery in London, Meadows Museum in Dallas and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and exhibitions at Middlesbrough Art Gallery in Middlesbrough, the Gallery Nieves Fernández of Madrid, Galería Juan Gris of Madrid and Theo Gallery in Valencia.

● 1993 – Participation in the XLV Biennale of Venice, retrospective at Fundació Antoni Tàpies in Barcelona and Schirn Kunsthalle in Frankfurt, and exhibitions at the Pace Gallery in New York and the Erker Galerie in Sankt Gallen.

● 1994 – Participation in the Biennale of Slovenia, retrospective at Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde in Stockholm, Palace of Sástago in Zaragoza and Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume in Paris, and exhibitions at Waddington Galleries in London, Rupertinum Moderne Galerie und Graphische Sammlung of Salzburg and Museum of Fine Arts of Santa Fe.

● 1995 – Retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, and exhibitions at Pace Wildenstein in New York, Soledad Lorenzo Gallery in Madrid, Casa de la Moneda Museum in Madrid, Museum of Modern Art in Ceret, Galerie Lelong in Zurich, the Kunsthaus in Zug and Marburger University Museum in Marburg.

● 1996 – Retrospectives at the Kirin Art Space Harajuku in Tokyo, Marugame Genichiro Inokuma Museum of Contemporary Art in Kagawa, Niigata City Art Museum in Niigata and Gunma Museum of Modern Art, and exhibitions at the Auditorio de Galicia in Santiago de Compostela, Galerie Lelong in Paris, César Manrique Foundation in Lanzarote and Cultural Center of Belém, Lisbon.

● 1997 – Center for Contemporary Art Luigi Pecci of Prato, Christian Stein Gallery in Milan, Zaragoza Exhibition Room (Zaragoza), Fernando Santos Gallery in Porto, Kestner-Gesellschaft in Hannover and Galerie Lelong in Zurich.

● 1998 – Exhibitions at the Fundació Antoni Tàpies in Barcelona, Casa Rusca Pinacoteca Comunale in Locarno, Galerie Lelong in Paris, Kunsthalle in Krems, Soledad Lorenzo Gallery in Madrid, Exhibition Hall of the Centro Cultural Palacio de la Audiencia de Soria, Toni Tàpies Gallery of Barcelona, Joan Prats Gallery in Barcelona and Senda Gallery in Barcelona.

● 1999 – Centro Cultural Casa del Cordón in Burgos, the Pelaires Cultural Center in Palma and the Foundation Caixa Galicia in Vigo.

● 2000 – Exhibitions at the Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos de Burgos, MNCARS in Madrid, Galerie Lelong in Paris, Pace Gallery in New York, Haus der Kunst in Munich and Toni Tàpies Gallery in Barcelona.

● 2001 – Exhibitions at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, Borges Cultural Center in Buenos Aires, the Foundation Caixa de Girona in Girona, Galerie Lelong in Zurich, Soledad Lorenzo Gallery in Madrid and the Waddington Galleries in London.

● 2002 – Exhibitions at the Cascais Cultural Center, Antoni Tàpies Foundation in Barcelona, Bab Rouah Gallery in Rabat, Galerie Lelong in Paris and Picasso Museum in Antibes.

● 2003 – Exhibitions in La Casa Encendida in Madrid, Toni Tàpies Gallery in Barcelona, Pace Wildenstein Gallery in New York, Waddington Galleries in London, Art Center in La Panera in Lleida, Soledad Lorenzo Gallery in Madrid and Kunsthalle in Emden.

● 2004 – Exhibitions at the MACBA in Barcelona, Neues Museum in Nuremberg, Patio Herreriano Museum in Valladolid, Banco do Brasil Cultural Center in Rio de Janeiro, Marcelino Botín Foundation in Santander, MNCARS in Madrid, Zapopan Art Museum and Toni Tàpies Gallery in Barcelona.

● 2005 – Exhibitions in Hara Museum of Art in Tokyo, Waddington Galleries in London, Galerie Lelong in Zurich, Caixa Galicia Foundation in El Ferrol, Museum of Contemporary Art in Lissone, Singapore Art Museum in Singapore and Exhibition and Congress Center of Zaragoza.

● 2006 – Exhibitions in Fernando Santos Gallery in Porto and Lisbon, Waddington Galleries in London, Pace Wildenstein Gallery in New York, Hôtel des Arts in Toló, Galerie Lelong in Paris, Soledad Lorenzo Gallery in Madrid, Gallery Toni Tàpies in Barcelona and Antoni Tàpies Foundation in Barcelona.

● 2007 – Exhibitions at the Schloss Moyland Museum in Bedburg-Hau, the Espoo Museum of Modern Art in Espoo and the Cervantes Institute in Madrid.

● 2008 – Exhibitions at the Cervantes Institute in Berlin, the Cervantes Institute in Prague, the Cervantes Institute in Toulouse, Galerie Lelong in Zurich, Toni Tàpies Gallery in Barcelona and Waddington Galleries in London.

Museums which display his works:

● Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.
● Museum of Contemporary Art of Barcelona
● National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona.
● Fundació Suñol, Barcelona.
● Contemporary Arts Museum, Madrid.
● Museum of Modern Art, New York.
● Guggenheim Museum, New York.
● National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome.
● Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh (PA).
● Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo (NY).
● Cleveland Art Museum, Cleveland (OH)
● Wichita Art Museum, Wichita (KS)
● Museum of Contemporary Arts, Los Angeles (CA)
● Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis (IN)
● Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.
● National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh.
● Moderna Museet, Stockholm.
● ARTIUM Museum in Vitoria-Gasteiz.
● Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven.
● Museum of Modern Art in São Paulo.
● Museum of Modern Art in Venice.
● Museum of Modern Art in Bologna.
● Museum in Krefeld.
● Museum of Contemporary Art, Buenos Aires
● National Museum of Bogotá.
● Museum Premio Lissone, Milan.
● White Memorial Gallery, Ithaca (NY).
● National Center for Contemporary Art in Paris.
● Kunstmuseum, Berlin.
● Städel Museum, Frankfurt
● Kunstmuseum, Cologne.
● Kunstmuseum, Basel.
● Kunsthaus, Zurich.
● Tate Gallery, London.
● Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka

Recognition

● 1953: Prize of the Biennale of São Paulo.
● 1954: First Prize of the Jazz Hall, Barcelona.
● 1955: Prize of the Republic of Colombia, at the III Hispano-American Biennale.
● 1958: UNESCO award.
● 1958: David Bright Foundation Award, Los Angeles.
● 1958: Carnegie Institute Prize, Pittsburgh.
● 1960: Prize of the International Engraving Biennale of Tokyo.
● 1964: Prize of the Guggenheim Foundation.
● 1966: Gran Premi of the President of the Republic at the Biennale of Menton.
● 1966: Gold Medal of the XV International Congress of Art Critics.
● 1967: Engraving Prize at the Biennale of Ljubljana.
● 1972: Rubens Prize, Siegen.
● 1974: Stephan Lochner Medal, Colony.
● 1975: Serra d’Or Critics Prize for Essay on Art against Aesthetics
● 1979: Ciutat de Barcelona Award.
● 1979: Honorary member of the Berlin Academy of Arts.
● 1981: Honorary Doctorate from the Royal College of Arts in London.
● 1981: Gold Medal of Fine Arts from the Ministry of Culture, Spain.
● 1982: Wolf Foundation Award of Jerusalem.
● 1983: Appointed Officer of the Order of Arts et des Lettres de France.
● 1983: Rembrandt Award, Toepfer Foundation, Hamburg.
● 1983: Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
● 1984: La Paz Prize of the Association of the United Nations in Spain.
● 1985: Prix National de Peinture de France.
● 1988: Honorary Doctorate from the University of Barcelona.
● 1988: Honorary Member of the Gesellschaft Bildener Künstler Österreichs of Vienna.
● 1990: Prince of Asturias Prize for Arts.
● 1990: “Praemium Imperiale”, of the Artistic Association of Japan.
● 1990: Honorary Doctorate from the Universities of Glasgow and the Balearic Islands.
● 1991: Tomás Francisco Prieto Prize.
● 1992: Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Arts of London and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Cambridge.
● 1992: Gold medal of the City Council of Barcelona.
● 1993: UNESCO Picasso Medal.
● 1993: Golden Lion of the XLV Biennale of Venice.
● 1994: European Grand Prize of Graphic Arts at the Slovenian Biennale.
● 1994: Honorary Doctorate from Rovira i Virgili University. University for which he has designednemblem, characterized by the letter “a” representing the principle of universal knowledge.
● 1995: National Prize for Visual Arts of the Generalitat de Catalunya.
● 1996: Cross of the Order of Santiago of the Portuguese Republic.
● 1997: Gold medal from the University of Porto.
● 1998: Doctor honoris causa of the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest.
● 1999: Ciutat de Barcelona Award.
● 2003: Doctor honoris causa of the Complutense University of Madrid.
● 2003: Commander of the National Order of the French Legion of Honor.
● 2003: Prize Velázquez for the Plastic Arts from the Ministry of Culture, Spain.
● 2004: 2004 Lissone Award for his career as a whole, Milan.
● 2010: Appointed Marquisate de Tàpies by King Juan Carlos I.

Bibliography

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EL PONT D’ESPLUGUES, desembre de 2008,  Antoni Tàpies y Òscar Tusquets, ex alumnos del centro, abren sus puertas a estudiantes del colegio

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Xavier Barral, “Pintura i pintors del segle XX”, a Art de Catalunya. Pintura moderna i contemporània

AA.VV., Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana

AA.VV., La pintura catalana. Els protagonistes dels segles XIX i XX

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«Declaracions de Miguel Zugaza, director del Museu del Prado, al diari ABC»

Molins, Marc. Jacint Morera, una retrospectativa. Terrassa: Amics de les Arts, 1983

Xavier Barral, Pintura i pintors del segle XX, en Art de Catalunya. Pintura moderna i contemporània

Josep Corredor-Matheos, Història de l’art català. La segona meitat del segle XX

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«El legado de Antonio Tàpies permanecerá custodiado bajo llave 15 años en “La Caja de las Letras

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«Mor el pintor i escultor Antoni Tàpies als 88 anys». 324.cat, 06-02-2011

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