2S6 Tunguska. GRAU classification: 2K22. NATO reporting name: SA-19 “Grison”
Development of the 2K22 anti-aircraft system began on 8 June 1970. At the request of the Soviet Ministry of Defense, the KBP Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, under the guidance of the appointed Chief Designer Arkadiy Shipunov, started work on a 30 mm anti-aircraft system as a replacement for the 23 mm ZSU-23-4.
Studies were conducted and demonstrated that a 30 mm cannon would require from a third to a half of the number of shells that the 23 mm cannon of the ZSU-23-4 would need to destroy a given target, and that firing at a MiG-17 (or similarly at, in case of war, NATO’s Hawker Hunter or Fiat G.91) flying at 300 metres per second (670 mph), with an identical mass of 30 mm projectiles would result in a kill probability 1.5 times greater than with 23 mm projectiles. An increase in the maximum engagement altitude from 2,000 to 4,000 metres and increased effectiveness when engaging lightly armoured ground targets were also cited.
The initial requirements set for the system were to achieve twice the performance in terms of range, altitude and combat effectiveness of the ZSU-23-4, additionally the system should have a reaction time no greater than 10 seconds. Due to the similarities in the fire control of artillery and missiles, it was decided that the Tunguska would be a combined gun and missile system. A combined system is more effective than the ZSU-23-4, engaging targets at long-range with missiles, and shorter range targets with guns.
Development bureau: Конструкторское бюро приборостроения (Tula, USSR)
Chief engineer: Arkadiy Shipunov
Manufacturer: АО «Ульяновский механический завод» (Ulyanovsk, USSR)
Years of production: 1982—
In service: 1984—
Power: 710 HP
Max speed: 65 km/h
Range: 500 km
Fire range: 8 km
Weight (transporter erector launcher): 34 t
Weight (missile): 42 kg
Armament: 2 × cannon 2A38 (30 mm), 8 × SAM missile 9M311